English 3 : Philippine Literature

Meter (poetry)

In poetry, meter (metre in British English) is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse. Many traditional verse forms prescribe a specific verse meter, or a certain set of meters alternating in a particular order. The study of meters and forms of versification is known as prosody. (Within linguistics, “prosody” is used in a more general sense that includes not only poetical meter but also the rhythmic aspects of prose, whether formal or informal, which vary from language to language, and sometimes between poetic traditions.)

Qualitative vs. quantitative meter

The meter of much poetry of the Western world and elsewhere is based on particular patterns of syllables of particular types. The familiar type of meter in English-language poetry is called qualitative meter, with stressed syllables coming at regular intervals (e.g. in iambic pentameter, typically every even-numbered syllable). Many Romance languages use a scheme that is somewhat similar but where the position of only one particular stressed syllable (e.g. the last) needs to be fixed. The meter of the old Germanic poetry of languages such as Old Norse and Old English was radically different, but still was based on stress patterns.

Many classical languages, however, use a different scheme known as quantitative meter, where patterns are based on syllable weight rather than stress. In dactylic hexameter of Classical Latin and Classical Greek, for example, each of the six feet making up the line was either a dactyl (long-short-short) or spondee (long-long), where a long syllable was literally one that took longer to pronounce than a short syllable: specifically, a syllable consisting of a long vowel or diphthong or followed by two consonants. The stress pattern of the words made no difference to the meter. A number of other ancient languages also used quantitative meter, such as Sanskrit and Classical Arabic (but not Biblical Hebrew).

Feet

In most Western classical poetic traditions, the meter of a verse can be described as a sequence of feet, each foot being a specific sequence of syllable types — such as unstressed/stressed (the norm for English poetry) or long/short (as in most classical Latin and Greek poetry).

Iambic pentameter, the most common meter in English poetry, is a sequence of five iambic feet or iambs, each consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one (“da-DUM”) :

So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM

This approach to analyzing and classifying meters originates from ancient Greek tragedians and poets such as Homer, Pindar, Hesiod, and Sappho.

Note that some meters have an overall rhythmic pattern to the line that cannot easily be described using feet. This occurs in Sanskrit poetry; see Vedic meter and Sanskrit meter). (Although this poetry is in fact specified using feet, each “foot” is more or less equivalent to an entire line.) However, it also occurs in some Western meters, such as the hendecasyllable favored by Catullus, which can be described approximately as “DUM-DUM-DUM-da-da-DUM-da-DUM-da-DUM-da”, with some variation allowed in the first two syllables.

Half-lines

In place of using feet, alliterative verse of old Germanic languages such as Old English and Old Norse divided each line into two half-lines. Each half-line had to follow one of five or so patterns, each of which defined a sequence of stressed and unstressed syllables, typically with two stressed syllables per line. Unlike typical Western poetry, however, the number of unstressed syllables could vary somewhat. For example, the common pattern “DUM-da-DUM-da” could allow between one and five unstressed syllables between the two stresses.

The following is a famous example, taken from The Battle of Maldon:

Hige sceal þe heardra, || heorte þe cēnre,
mōd sceal þe re, || swā ūre mægen lȳtlað

(“Will must be the harder, courage the bolder,
spirit must be the more, as our might lessens.”)

In the quoted section, the stressed syllables have been underlined. (Normally, the stressed syllable must be long if followed by another syllable in a word. However, by a rule known as syllable resolution, two short syllables in a single word are considered equal to a single long syllable. Hence, sometimes two syllables have been underlined, as in hige and mægen.) The first three half-lines have the type A pattern “DUM-da-(da-)DUM-da”, while the last one has the type C pattern “da-(da-da-)DUM-DUM-da”, with parentheses indicating optional unstressed syllables that have been inserted. Note also the pervasive pattern of alliteration, where the first and/or second stress alliterate with the third, but not with the fourth.

Metric variations

Poems with a well-defined overall metric pattern often have a few lines that violate that pattern. A common variation is the inversion of a foot, which turns an iamb (“da-DUM”) into a trochee (“DUM-da”). Another common variation is a headless verse, which lacks the first syllable of the first foot. Yet a third variation is catalexis, where the end of a line is shortened by a foot, or two or part thereof – an example of this is at the end of each verse in Keats’ ‘La Belle Dame sans Merci’:

And on thy cheeks a fading rose (4 feet)
Fast withereth too (2 feet)
Foot type Style Stress pattern Syllable count
Iamb Iambic Unstressed + Stressed Two
Trochee Trochaic Stressed + Unstressed Two
Spondee Spondaic Stressed + Stressed Two
Anapest Anapestic Unstressed + Unstressed + Stressed Three
Dactyl Dactylic Stressed + Unstressed + Unstressed Three
Amphibrach Amphibrachic Unstressed + Stressed + Unstressed Three
Pyrrhic Pyrrhic Unstressed + Unstressed Two

Source: Cummings Study Guides

If there is one foot, it’s called monometer; two feet, dimeter; three is trimeter; four is tetrameter; five is pentameter; six is hexameter, seven is heptameter and eight is octameter. For example, if the feet are iambs, and if there are five feet to a line, then it’s called iambic pentameter.If the feet are primarily dactyls and there are six to a line, then it’s dactylic hexameter.

Iamb

An iamb (/ˈaɪæm/ or iambus) is a metrical foot used in various types of poetry. Originally the term referred to one of the feet of the quantitative meter of classical Greek prosody: a short syllable followed by a long syllable (as in delay). This terminology was adopted in the description of accentual-syllabic verse in English, where it refers to a foot comprising an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable (as in a-bove).

Origin

The word iamb comes from Iambe, a Greek minor goddess of verse, especially scurrilous, ribald humour. In ancient Greece iambus was mainly a satirical poem, a lampoon, which did not automatically imply a particular metrical type. Iambic metre took its name from being characteristic of iambi, not vice versa.

Accentual-syllabic use

In accentual-syllabic verse we could describe an iamb as a foot that goes like this:

da DUM

Using the ‘ictus and x’ notation (see systems of scansion for a full discussion of various notations) we can write this as:

x /

The word ‘attempt’ is a natural iamb:

x /
at- tempt

In phonology, an iambic foot is notated in a flat representation as (σ’σ) or as foot tree with two branches W and S where W = weak and S = strong.

Iambic pentameter is one of the most commonly used measures in English and German poetry. A line of iambic pentameter comprises five consecutive iambs.

Iambic trimeter is the metre of the spoken verses in Greek tragedy and comedy, comprising six iambs – as one iambic metrum consisted of two iambs. In English accentual-syllabic verse, iambic trimeter is a line comprising three iambs.

Another common iambic form is ballad verse, in which a line of iambic tetrameter is succeeded by a line of iambic trimeter, usually in quatrain form.

A. B. “Banjo” Paterson wrote much of his poetry in iambic heptameter (which is sometimes called the ‘fourteener’), and Samuel Taylor Coleridge‘s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner also conforms to this stress pattern (although it is usually written as though it were composed of lines alternating between iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter).

The reverse of an iamb is called a trochee.

Types of Meter

Tetrameter

Main article: Iambic tetrameter

Iambic tetrameter is a meter referring to a line consisting of four iambic feet:

Lo, thus I triumph like a king,
Content with that my mind doth bring. (Edward Dyer, “My Mind to Me A Kingdom Is“)
‘Twas brillig, and the slithy toves
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe. (Lewis Carroll, “Jabberwocky“)

Pentameter

Main article: Iambic pentameter

Iambic Pentameter is a meter referring to a line consisting of five iambic feet:

To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. (Alfred Tennyson, “Ulysses“)
Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? (William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18)

(Although, it could be argued that this line in fact reads: Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Meter is often broken in this way, sometimes for intended effect and sometimes simply due to the sound of the words in the line. Where the stresses lie can be debated, as it depends greatly on where the reader decides to place the stresses. Although in this meter the foot ceases to be iambs but trochees.)

A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse! (William Shakespeare, Richard III)

 Heptameter

ambic Heptameter is a meter referring to a line consisting of seven iambic feet:

I s’pose the flats is pretty green up there in Ironbark. (A. B. Paterson, The Man from Ironbark)

Key:

  • Non-bold = unstressed syllable
  • Bold = stressed syllab

 

Trochee

A trochee (/ˈtroʊkiː/ or choree, choreus, is a metrical foot used in formal poetry consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one. Trochee comes from the Greek τροχός, trokhós, wheel, and choree from χορός, khorós, dance; both convey the “rolling” rhythm of this metrical foot.

A trochee (/ˈtroʊkiː/ or choree, choreus, is a metrical foot used in formal poetry consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one. Trochee comes from the Greek τροχός, trokhós, wheel, and choree from χορός, khorós, dance; both convey the “rolling” rhythm of this metrical foot.

Examples

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow‘s The Song of Hiawatha is written almost entirely in trochees, barring the occasional substitution (iamb, spondee, pyrrhic, etc.).

Should you ask me, whence these stories?
Whence these legends and traditions,
With the odours of the forest,
With the dew and damp of meadows,

In the second line, “and tra-” is a Pyrrhic substitution, as are “With the” in the third and fourth lines, and “of the” in the third. Even so, the dominant foot throughout the poem is the trochee.
Apart from the famous case of Longfellow’s The Song of Hiawatha, this metre is rarely found in perfect examples, at least in English. This is from Edgar Allan Poe‘s “The Raven“:

Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December;
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.

Trochaic meter is also seen among the works of William Shakespeare:

Double, double, toil and trouble;
Fire burn and cauldron bubble.[1]

Perhaps owing to its simplicity, though, trochaic meter is fairly common in children’s rhymes:

Peter, Peter pumpkin-eater
Had a wife and couldn’t keep her.

Often a few trochees will be interspersed among iambs in the same lines to develop a more complex or syncopated rhythm. Compare (William Blake):

Tyger, Tyger, burning bright
In the forests of the night

These lines are primarily trochaic, with the last syllable dropped so that the line ends with a stressed syllable to give a strong rhyme or masculine rhyme. By contrast, the intuitive way that the mind groups the syllables in later lines in the same poem makes them feel more like iambic lines with the first syllable dropped:

Did he smile his work to see?

In fact the surrounding lines by this point have become entirely iambic:

When the stars threw down their spears
And watered Heaven with their tears
. . .
Did he who made the lamb make thee?

Trochaic verse is also well-known in Latin poetry, especially of the medieval period. Since the stress never falls on the final syllable in Medieval Latin, the language is ideal for trochaic verse. The dies irae of the Requiem mass is a perfect example:

Dies irae, dies illa
Solvet saeclum in favilla
Teste David cum Sybilla.

The Finnish national epic Kalevala, like much old Finnish poetry, is written in a variation of trochaic tetrameter.

Anapaest

An anapaest (also spelled anapæst or anapest, also called antidactylus) is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. In classical quantitative meters it consists of two short syllables followed by a long one; in accentual stress meters it consists of two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable. It may be seen as a reversed dactyl. This word comes from the Greek ανάπαιστος, anápaistos, literally “struck back” (a dactyl reversed), from ‘ana-‘ + ‘-paistos’, verbal of παίειν, paíein: to strike.

Because of its length and the fact that it ends with a stressed syllable and so allows for strong rhymes, anapaest can produce a very rolling, galloping feeling verse, and allows for long lines with a great deal of internal complexity.

Anapaest

An anapaest (also spelled anapæst or anapest, also called antidactylus) is a metrical foot used in formal poetry. In classical quantitative meters it consists of two short syllables followed by a long one; in accentual stress meters it consists of two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable. It may be seen as a reversed dactyl. This word comes from the Greek ανάπαιστος, anápaistos, literally “struck back” (a dactyl reversed), from ‘ana-‘ + ‘-paistos’, verbal of παίειν, paíein: to strike.

Because of its length and the fact that it ends with a stressed syllable and so allows for strong rhymes, anapaest can produce a very rolling, galloping feeling verse, and allows for long lines with a great deal of internal complexity.

Examples

Trimeter

Here is an example from William Cowper‘s “Verses Supposed to be Written by Alexander Selkirk” (1782), composed in anapaestic trimeter:

I must finish my journey alone
Tetrameter

An example of anapaestic tetrameter is the anonymously published A Visit From St. Nicholas:

Twas the night before Christmas and all through the house

The following is from Byron‘s The Destruction of Sennacherib:

The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold
And the sheen of their spears was like stars on the sea
When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.
Hexameter

An even more complex example comes from Yeats‘s The Wanderings of Oisin. He intersperses anapests and iambs, using six-foot lines (rather than four feet as above). Since the anapaest is already a long foot, this makes for very long lines.

Fled foam underneath us and ’round us, a wandering and milky smoke
As high as the saddle-girth, covering away from our glances the tide
And those that fled and that followed from the foam-pale distance broke.
The immortal desire of immortals we saw in their faces and sighed.

The mixture of anapaests and iambs in this manner is most characteristic of late-19th-century verse, particularly that of Algernon Charles Swinburne in poems such as The Triumph of Time and the choruses from Atalanta in Calydon. Swinburne also wrote several poems in more or less straight anapaests, with line-lengths varying from three feet (“Dolores”) to eight feet (“March: An Ode”). However, the anapaest’s most common role in English verse is as a comic metre, the foot of the limerick, of Lewis Carroll‘s poem The Hunting of the Snark, Edward Lear‘s nonsense poems, T. S. Eliot‘s Book of Practical Cats, a number of Dr. Seuss stories, and innumerable other examples.

Apart from their independent role, anapaests are sometimes used as substitutions in iambic verse. In strict iambic pentameter, anapaests are rare, but they are found with some frequency in freer versions of the iambic line, such as the verse of Shakespeare’s last plays, or the lyric poetry of the 19th century.

References: Shakespeare Biography (BOOK)

 

Dactyl (poetry)

A dactyl (Gr. δάκτυλος dáktulos, “finger”) is a foot in meter in poetry. In quantitative verse, such as Greek or Latin, a dactyl is a long syllable followed by two short syllables, as determined by syllable weight. In accentual verse, such as English, it is a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables—the opposite is the anapaest (two unstressed followed by a stressed syllable).

The word “poetry” is itself a dactyl, as pointed out in the New York Times Crossword Puzzle (Will Shortz, ed.) for May 31, 2006. A useful mnemonic for remembering this long-short-short pattern is to consider the relative lengths of the three bones of a human finger: beginning at the knuckle, it is one long bone followed by two shorter ones (hence the name “dactyl”).

An example of dactylic meter is the first line of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow‘s poem Evangeline, which is in dactylic hexameter:

This is the / forest prim- / eval. The / murmuring / pines and the / hem locks,

The first five feet of the line are dactyls; the sixth a spondee.

Stephen Fry quotes Robert Browning‘s The Lost Leader as an example of the use of dactylic metre to great effect, creating verse with “great rhythmic dash and drive”:[1]

Just for a handful of silver he left us
Just for a riband to stick in his coat

The first three feet in both lines are dactyls.

Another example: the opening lines of Whitman’s “Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking” (1859), his poem about the birth of his poetic voice:

Out of the cradle, endlessly rocking [a dactyl, followed by a trochee (‘cradle’); then another dactyl followed by a trochee (‘rocking’]
Out of the mockingbird’s throat, the musical shuttle [2 dactyls, then a trochee (‘throat, the’); then another dactyl, followed by a trochee]
. . .

The dactyl “out of the…” becomes a pulse that rides through the entire poem, often generating the beginning of each new line, even though the poem as a whole, as is typical for Whitman, is extremely varied and “free” in its use of metrical feet.

Dactyls are the metrical foot of Greek elegiac poetry, which followed a line of dactylic hexameter with dactylic pentameter.

 

 

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

 

 

 

 

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